According to the European Council for Refugees and Exiles (ECRE) and UNHCR, the current system does not provide fair, effective and effective protection. By 2008, refugees transferred to Dublin did not always have access to asylum procedures. So there is a risk that people will be persecuted again.  ECRE and UNHCR have repeatedly argued that the Dublin Regulation interferes with the legal rights and personal well-being of asylum seekers, including the right to a fair review of their asylum claims and, if recognized, effective protection and unequal distribution of asylum claims among Member States. Germany welcomes more than 1,500 refugees from the Greek islands in the Dublin II Regulation was adopted in 2003 and replaced the Dublin Convention in all EU Member States except Denmark, which is disconnected from the regulations for application in the area of freedom, security and justice.  In 2006, an agreement came into force with Denmark to extend the application of the regulation to Denmark.  A separate protocol also extended the Iceland-Norway agreement to Denmark in 2006.  On 1 March 2008, the provisions of the regulation were also extended by a treaty to third countries, Switzerland which, on 5 June 2005, voted 54.6% in favour of their ratification, and Liechtenstein on 1 April 2011.  We want a close partnership in the future to address the common challenges of asylum and illegal immigration.
Section 17 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 obliges the government to negotiate an agreement with the EU allowing unaccompanied children of an asylum seeker in the EU to join family members legally residing in the UK, where it is in their best interest. This obligation applies regardless of whether we leave the EU with or without an agreement. The implementation of transfers is based on the replacement of an agreement and we are working to negotiate such an agreement as quickly as possible. The Dublin regime was originally introduced by the Dublin Convention, signed in Dublin (Ireland) on 15 June 1990 and came into force on 1 October 1997 for the first twelve signatories (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom), and on 1 January 1998 for Finland.  While the agreement was only open to accession by the Member States of the European Communities, Norway and Iceland, non-member countries, reached an agreement with the EC in 2001 on the application of the provisions of the Convention on their territory.  Around June 23, 2015, Hungary has been overburdened with asylum applications during the European refugee and migrant crisis, after taking in 60,000 „illegals“ this year, and has announced that it will no longer accept asylum seekers who have crossed borders to other EU countries and are being held there for „technical reasons“ not specified by the Dublin Regulation.  On 24 August 2015, Germany therefore decided to use the „sovereignty clause“ to process Syrian asylum applications, which it would not have jurisdiction over under the criteria of the regulation.  On 2 September 2015, the Czech Republic also decided to offer Syrian refugees who had already applied for asylum in other EU countries and had arrived in the country to process their applications in the Czech Republic (i).